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Who Discovered Pluto?

Who Discovered Pluto?
The facts about Pluto’s discovery are well known: back in 1908, Percival Lowell had postulated the theory that there was another planet beyond Uranus. Lowell’s observatory had captured images of Pluto in 1915, but he did not realize it was a planet. The official discovery was made by Clyde Tombaugh on March 1930. Facts and Figures Pluto has a perihelion of 4.4 billion km, and an aphelion of 7.4 billion km. The mean is 5.9 billion km. The rotation is 6.4 days in a retrograde motion. Its revolution is 247.7 years. Its average distance is 39 AU. After the agreement in 2006, Pluto and its satellite Charon were classified as dwarf planets. Surface and Geology Its distance notwithstanding, several facts about Pluto has been established. Scientists have determined that its surface is a light brown with shades of yellow. Further analysis revealed that its main physical composition is nitrogen ice (over 98% of the surface). There are also elements of carbon monoxide and methane detected. However,...

Who Discovered Lead?

Who Discovered Lead?
Introduction Lead is an element classified as a heavy metal. It is malleable and soft. Lead changes color depending on its state. When you cut a piece of lead in half, it looks bluish white. Exposure to air causes it to turn a grey. When melted, lead has a silvery look like chrome. No one knows who discovered lead, but it probably made them sick. Like another heavy metal, mercury, lead is poisonous. History of Lead Lead is a fairly common and easy to extract metal. Its use was widespread in Europe and the Mediterranean. Lead was probably discovered along with silver, with which it is often mixed. Silver slag have been recovered along the Aegean Sea dating back several thousand years BC. Early evidence of lead include lead beads from 6400 BC in Turkey, and verse 15:10 of the Book of Exodus. Lead was also discovered independently by the Egyptians, Babylonians, Assyrians and Chinese. Mining for lea is a dangerous business. The Greeks and Romans knew this as well as we do now. Because lead...

Who Discovered the Constellation Aries?

Who Discovered the Constellation Aries?
While facts about the constellation Aries are well known, its discoverer is still a mystery. Its existence was known to the Greeks. The Egyptians, Babylonians and other ancient civilizations were aware of its existence too. Facts and Figures The constellation’s symbol is the ram and has an area of 441 sq degrees. It has four stars with planets. There are two bright stars and two nearby. There are six meteor showers (the May, Autumn, Delta, Epsilon, Daytime Arietids, and the Aries Triangulids). The constellations in the vicinity are Taurus, Perseus, Pisces, Cetus and Triangulum. A study of the facts about the constellation Aries show the best time to view it is at + 90 degrees and – 60 degrees on 9:00 PM in December. Noteworthy Stars Alpha Arietis (Hamal) has a magnitude of 2, the brightest star in Aries. It has a reddish hue. It is 5 times bigger than the Sun and 55 times brighter. Beta Arietis has a magnitude of 2.7 and more than 60 light years away. The Gamma Arietis is a double...

Who Discovered Genetic Engineering?

Who Discovered Genetic Engineering?
When studying the facts about genetic engineering, the names of Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen will always be mentioned. In 1973, the two scientists invented a DNA cloning technique. For many historians this was both the discovery and beginning of this science. Cohen and Boyer’s Work Cohen and Boyer utilized enzymes to slice a bacteria plasmid. Then they placed this in another DNA strand. These strands were obtained from the same bacteria. Next, the two inserted frog DNA into the bacteria. Their work proved that mixing and manipulating genes was possible. Today several enzymes are used to slice the DNA in different ways. The mapping of DNA has made it possible to manipulate genes more easily. As more facts about genetic engineering emerged, it became possible for scientists to produce insulin for diabetic patients. At the same time the technique has been employed for making EPO (used to treat patients with kidney ailments). This was followed in 1990 when genetic therapy was invented....

Who Discovered Stem Cells?

Who Discovered Stem Cells?
Stem cell research has long been a much-debated and highly-controversial scientific field. While there is no apparent controversy with regards to who discovered stem cells, many scientists through the years have contributed to the development of the study that it would appear difficult to credit a single person for the discovery. One would have to choose between those who first suggested their existence and those who were able to prove it. It was a Russian histologist named Alexander Maksimov who, in 1908, first put forward the existence of the stem cell (and coming up with the term himself) as part of his theory of haematopoiesis. According to Maksimov’s hypothesis, all cellular blood components were derived from haematopoietic stem cells. However, there had been no major developments in the field of stem cell research for some 60 years after Maksimov’s theory was proposed. It was in the 1960’s that Joseph Altman and Gopal Das presented scientific proof of constant stem cell activity...