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Who Discovered Albinism?

Who Discovered Albinism?
Generally considered as a hypopigmentary congenital disorder, albinism is also called by other terms like achromatosis, achromasia or achromia. More than anything else, this condition is known for the insufficient melanin pigment that usually affects various body parts, specifically the hair, skin and eyes. Besides human beings, it also affects various kinds of animals including reptiles, birds and fishes. In order to learn more about this interesting medical condition, it is good to know other basic facts about it including who discovered albinism. The Discovery of Albinism Who discovered albinism? Despite the claims of earlier historians that Aulus Gellius and Plinius Secundus the Elder were the first individuals to have observed such condition, its discovery as a disease was credited to Archibald Garrod. He discovered the disease some time in 1908. He observed patients, particularly those with symptoms like hypersensitivity to light, eye misalignment as well as abnormal decussation. Additional...

Who Discovered Copper?

Who Discovered Copper?
Introduction Who discovered copper? Nobody knows. But evidence suggests that copper was the first metal ever discovered and used by man. Or at least one of the oldest. In modern day Iraq, archeologists once found a copper pendant over 10,000 years old. Unlike silver, copper is often found uncompounded in its natural state. So it is likely that humans learned to use copper first, perhaps along with gold and meteoritic iron. History of Copper Two of the world’s oldest civilizations made use of copper – Chaldea and Sumer. They used copper to make military equipment such as bows, arrows, spear heads and helmets. Archeologists have also unearthed small items like copper pins, harpoons blades and pots made of bronze (a copper alloy). Sumerian craftsmen made beautiful sculptures made from copper and mounted them on walls. The Imdugud Relief is a fine example of this. It dates from 3,100BC and shows an eagle with the head of a lion, holding a stag in each claw. Copper can be mixed with other...

Who Discovered Fractals?

Who Discovered Fractals?
Benoit Mandelbrot is usually credited with discovering fractals in 1975. Mandelbrot was the one who invented the word. He was also the first to represent them visually. But some facts about fractals were known to mathematicians as far back as the 17th century. Early Fractal Research A fractal can be described as a pattern that is repeated at every scale. It cannot be replicated by classical geometry. The concept of self similarity was first brought up by the philosopher and mathematician Lebinz in the 17th century. It wasn’t until 1872 before a function appropriate to be termed a fractal came into being. Karl Weierstrass showed an instance of a function that was continuous but could not be differentiated. This definition was improved upon by Helge von Koch in 1904 when he defined it as a Koch curve. A study of the facts about fractals will show it is now called the Koch snowflake. In 1915, Wallow Sierpinski created a triangle and a carpet. In 1938, Paul Levy came up with another fractal...

Who Discovered Pluto?

Who Discovered Pluto?
The facts about Pluto’s discovery are well known: back in 1908, Percival Lowell had postulated the theory that there was another planet beyond Uranus. Lowell’s observatory had captured images of Pluto in 1915, but he did not realize it was a planet. The official discovery was made by Clyde Tombaugh on March 1930. Facts and Figures Pluto has a perihelion of 4.4 billion km, and an aphelion of 7.4 billion km. The mean is 5.9 billion km. The rotation is 6.4 days in a retrograde motion. Its revolution is 247.7 years. Its average distance is 39 AU. After the agreement in 2006, Pluto and its satellite Charon were classified as dwarf planets. Surface and Geology Its distance notwithstanding, several facts about Pluto has been established. Scientists have determined that its surface is a light brown with shades of yellow. Further analysis revealed that its main physical composition is nitrogen ice (over 98% of the surface). There are also elements of carbon monoxide and methane detected. However,...

Who Discovered the South Pole?

Who Discovered the South Pole?
The facts about the South Pole show that James Cook was the first to circumnavigate Antarctica. He wasn’t able to land, but seeing the rocks in the ice, realized that there was land beyond it. Some claim American John Davis was the first to land on continental Antarctica on February 7, 1821. It should be noted that Davis’ landing is not accepted by all historians. The Early 1800s Following Cook, several seafarers ventured forth to explore the continent and its surroundings. Among the earliest ones were Capt. Thaddeus Bellingshausen (January 27, 1820), the British explorer Will Smith and Nathaniel Palmer, an American. Another interesting fact about the South Pole is that prior to 1821, no one stayed for extended periods. This changed in the winter of 1821 when 11 British men aboard the British ship Lord Melville stayed there for a winter season. They stayed at the South Shetlands Group, north of the Antarctic Peninsula. The Mid to Late 1800s By this time the existence of Antarctica...