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Who Discovered Jupiter?

Who Discovered Jupiter?
Jupiter is among the five planets in our solar system that are visible in the night sky. You can observe this planet without any aid from binoculars or telescopes. Because of its night time visibility, we know that this planet has been seen by people even before anyone has ever recorded history. Because of this we can’t really tell who discovered Jupiter. The planet has always been known even in ancient times. It has also been observed for thousands of years by many different people. Galileo’s Discovery Jupiter was observed by Galileo Galilei on January 7, 1610. Not only was he able to discover the planet he was also able to discover three of the many moons orbiting it. On January 13 of the same year, which is only six nights after, he discovered a fourth moon. The four moons were later dubbed the Galilean Moons. All the moons were named after the lovers of the god Zeus. However, even after Galileo’s discovery we may not credit him as the astronomer who discovered Jupiter. Challenge...

Who Discovered Fireworks?

Who Discovered Fireworks?
Who discovered fireworks? The Chinese discovered fireworks and gunpowder about two millennia ago during the Sung Dynasty. A popular story tells how a cook stumbled upon it when he unintentionally mixed sulphur, saltpeter and charcoal. The mixture was combustible: it burned and when stored in a bamboo case exploded. This may be considered the first fireworks ever made. But not for the same purpose as fireworks are now used—in celebrations. The Chinese had a more urgent issue to deal with. They built rockets powered with this new powder and used them well against the Mongols in the 1200s. A thousand years later, another Chinese man discovered he could make firecrackers. This time it was a Chinese monk from the city of Liu Yung, in Hu Nan province. The monk’s name was Li Tian. His achievement was so significant to the Chinese that they built a temple for him during the Song Dynasty. Since then, the Chinese have been celebrating the discovery of fireworks on April 18 by making offerings...

Who Discovered the North Pole?

Who Discovered the North Pole?
As far back as the 16th century, researchers had speculated on the possibility that the North Pole existed. Based on known facts about the North Pole, it was called the Open Polar Sea in the 19th century. The question as to who got there first is subject to debate. Early Expeditions During the 1800s, several explorers tried to reach the North Pole. In 1827, British naval officer William Edward Parry tried, but was forced to turn back. In 1871, an expedition led by American Charles Hall also failed. In 1895 Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen and Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen got to 86 degrees 14’ North prior to being forced back. The Italian whaler Stella Polare (led by Luigi Amedeo) got to 86 degrees and 34’. The Early 1900s and Robert Peary The facts about the North Pole expeditions started being disputed around this time. The American Frederick Cook declared he was able to reach the North Pole on April 21, 1908. But his claim is not taken seriously by historians due to lack of supporting...

Who Discovered Fractals?

Who Discovered Fractals?
Benoit Mandelbrot is usually credited with discovering fractals in 1975. Mandelbrot was the one who invented the word. He was also the first to represent them visually. But some facts about fractals were known to mathematicians as far back as the 17th century. Early Fractal Research A fractal can be described as a pattern that is repeated at every scale. It cannot be replicated by classical geometry. The concept of self similarity was first brought up by the philosopher and mathematician Lebinz in the 17th century. It wasn’t until 1872 before a function appropriate to be termed a fractal came into being. Karl Weierstrass showed an instance of a function that was continuous but could not be differentiated. This definition was improved upon by Helge von Koch in 1904 when he defined it as a Koch curve. A study of the facts about fractals will show it is now called the Koch snowflake. In 1915, Wallow Sierpinski created a triangle and a carpet. In 1938, Paul Levy came up with another fractal...

Who Discovered Aluminum?

Who Discovered Aluminum?
Though today it is one of the most common metals in the world, there was a time when aluminum was actually one of the rarest and most precious. It took the scientists who discovered aluminum years of experimentation before they succeeded in refining this elusive element. Aluminum originates from the compound “alum,” given that name by French chemist and politician Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau in 1761. From as far back as 1787, scientists had hypothesized the existence of an unknown base metal in alum. While not quite the man who discovered aluminum, British chemist and inventor Sir Humphry Davy, can be credited for naming it (first as “alumium” before being given its current designation) in 1808. It was in 1825 when a Danish chemist and physicist named Hans Christian Oersted developed a way of extracting small amounts of aluminum from alum by having anhydrous aluminum chloride react with potassium amalgam to produce a chunk of metal with properties similar to those of tin. German...