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Who Discovered Genetic Engineering?

Who Discovered Genetic Engineering?
When studying the facts about genetic engineering, the names of Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen will always be mentioned. In 1973, the two scientists invented a DNA cloning technique. For many historians this was both the discovery and beginning of this science. Cohen and Boyer’s Work Cohen and Boyer utilized enzymes to slice a bacteria plasmid. Then they placed this in another DNA strand. These strands were obtained from the same bacteria. Next, the two inserted frog DNA into the bacteria. Their work proved that mixing and manipulating genes was possible. Today several enzymes are used to slice the DNA in different ways. The mapping of DNA has made it possible to manipulate genes more easily. As more facts about genetic engineering emerged, it became possible for scientists to produce insulin for diabetic patients. At the same time the technique has been employed for making EPO (used to treat patients with kidney ailments). This was followed in 1990 when genetic therapy...

Who Discovered the Constellation Aquarius?

Who Discovered the Constellation Aquarius?
Introduction The constellation Aquarius is one of the twelve signs of the zodiac. It is located in a region of the sky known as the Sea, called thus because of many water-related constellations in the area. These include Pisces (fish), Cetus (whale) and Eridanus (river). Aquarius itself is the sign of the Water Bearer. People often mistake it for a “watery” sign because of the use of water in its symbolism. According to astrologers, Aquarius is not a water sign but an air sign. It comes after Capricorn and before Pisces. Its ruling planets are Saturn and Uranus. The word “aquarius” means “cup bearer. Discovery and History of Aquarius Babylonian astronomers probably discovered the constellation Aquarius. They listed the constellation as marking the autumn equinox in September in 4000 BC. Aquarius is also featured in the star catalogues of Ptolemy, Eudoxos and Aratus. Ancient people visualized Aquarius as a man bearing a vessel of water and pouring it downwards. This is how it came...

Who Discovered Watermelon?

Who Discovered Watermelon?
A common type of melon, watermelon is believed to have originated from the southern parts of Africa. Its fruit has a fleshy center and thick rind. Furthermore, it has a sweet and juicy interior flesh as well as a smooth exterior rind. The usual colors of its flesh are pink, yellow and orange. Meanwhile, the rind comes in shades of white, yellow and green. Aside from its reputation as one of the most delicious fruits, it is good to know its other aspects including who discovered watermelon. The Discovery of Watermelon Who discovered watermelon? In 1882, French-Swiss botanist Alphonse de Candolle proved that this fruit was indigenous to Africa. Because of its maximum genetic diversity, various tastes of this fruit emerged, some of which were bitter, others bland as well as sweet varieties. There are reports that it was first cultivated in the Nile Valley some time in the second millennium B.C. Seeds of watermelon were found inside the tomb of Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun, who ruled from 1333...

Who Discovered Calcium?

Who Discovered Calcium?
Most people probably know that Calcium is part of the Periodic Table of the Elements with the other crucial substances. Perhaps, they also know other things about calcium such as: The atomic number is twenty, the symbol used in the table is Ca, and its atomic weight is at 40.078. But if someone would ask who discovered calcium, not many people would immediately have the answer for that. The Existence of Calcium Way Back Then According to history, calcium was already known during the early times – particularly, during the first century when Ancient Romans roamed and lived in the land. It was considered then as a particular component in the preparation of lime as an element called as calcium oxide. In those days, lime was called as calx. The Isolation Process and the Discovery of Calcium It was only during the year of 1808 did calcium get isolated and taken as a particular element in itself. And the person who discovered calcium was Englishman Sir Humphrey Davy. Davy was able to discover...

Who Discovered Saturn?

Who Discovered Saturn?
Few facts about Saturn need to be clarified as much as its discovery. The Romans, Greeks and Hindus all knew of its existence. Galileo did not discover Saturn in the 17th century, but he was the first to study its rings. Facts and Figures Saturn has an equatorial diameter of 107,500 km and a polar diameter of 119,600 km. its perihelion is 1,349,000 km; the aphelion is 1,508,900 km and the mean is 1,500,000 km. The rotation is 10.66 hours. Saturn has a revolution of 29.45 years. It has more than 60 satellites, all of which have orbits. Surface and Geology One of the established facts about Saturn is that it’s flat at the poles while projecting at the equator. This makes it more oblate than other planets. Another notable trait is that its density is less than water. However it has a dense core brought about by the gaseous atmosphere. Saturn is 20% smaller than Jupiter but its mass is only 95 times that of Earth. By contrast, Jupiter has a mass 300 times that of Earth. Its internal structure...